Examples with tutorial

The online version of this tutorial contains embedded videos.

Bouncing sphere

Following example is in file doc/sphinx/tutorial/01-bouncing-sphere.py.

# basic simulation showing sphere falling ball gravity,
# bouncing against another sphere representing the support

# DATA COMPONENTS

# add 2 particles to the simulation
# they the default material (utils.defaultMat)
O.bodies.append([
	# fixed: particle's position in space will not change (support)
	sphere(center=(0,0,0),radius=.5,fixed=True),
	# this particles is free, subject to dynamics
	sphere((0,0,2),.5)
])

# FUNCTIONAL COMPONENTS

# simulation loop -- see presentation for the explanation
O.engines=[
	ForceResetter(),
	InsertionSortCollider([Bo1_Sphere_Aabb()]),
	InteractionLoop(
		[Ig2_Sphere_Sphere_ScGeom()],        # collision geometry
		[Ip2_FrictMat_FrictMat_FrictPhys()], # collision "physics"
		[Law2_ScGeom_FrictPhys_CundallStrack()]   # contact law -- apply forces
	),
	# Apply gravity force to particles. damping: numerical dissipation of energy.
	NewtonIntegrator(gravity=(0,0,-9.81),damping=0.1)
]

# set timestep to a fraction of the critical timestep
# the fraction is very small, so that the simulation is not too fast
# and the motion can be observed
O.dt=.5e-4*PWaveTimeStep()

# save the simulation, so that it can be reloaded later, for experimentation
O.saveTmp()

Gravity deposition

Following example is in file doc/sphinx/tutorial/02-gravity-deposition.py.

# gravity deposition in box, showing how to plot and save history of data,
# and how to control the simulation while it is running by calling
# python functions from within the simulation loop

# import yade modules that we will use below
from yade import pack, plot

# create rectangular box from facets
O.bodies.append(geom.facetBox((.5,.5,.5),(.5,.5,.5),wallMask=31))

# create empty sphere packing
# sphere packing is not equivalent to particles in simulation, it contains only the pure geometry
sp=pack.SpherePack()
# generate randomly spheres with uniform radius distribution
sp.makeCloud((0,0,0),(1,1,1),rMean=.05,rRelFuzz=.5)
# add the sphere pack to the simulation
sp.toSimulation()

O.engines=[
	ForceResetter(),
	InsertionSortCollider([Bo1_Sphere_Aabb(),Bo1_Facet_Aabb()]),
	InteractionLoop(
		# handle sphere+sphere and facet+sphere collisions
		[Ig2_Sphere_Sphere_ScGeom(),Ig2_Facet_Sphere_ScGeom()],
		[Ip2_FrictMat_FrictMat_FrictPhys()],
		[Law2_ScGeom_FrictPhys_CundallStrack()]
	),
	NewtonIntegrator(gravity=(0,0,-9.81),damping=0.4),
	# call the checkUnbalanced function (defined below) every 2 seconds
	PyRunner(command='checkUnbalanced()',realPeriod=2),
	# call the addPlotData function every 200 steps
	PyRunner(command='addPlotData()',iterPeriod=100)
]
O.dt=.5*PWaveTimeStep()

# enable energy tracking; any simulation parts supporting it
# can create and update arbitrary energy types, which can be
# accessed as O.energy['energyName'] subsequently
O.trackEnergy=True

# if the unbalanced forces goes below .05, the packing
# is considered stabilized, therefore we stop collected
# data history and stop
def checkUnbalanced():
	if unbalancedForce()<.05:
		O.pause()
		plot.saveDataTxt('bbb.txt.bz2')
		# plot.saveGnuplot('bbb') is also possible

# collect history of data which will be plotted
def addPlotData():
	# each item is given a names, by which it can be the unsed in plot.plots
	# the **O.energy converts dictionary-like O.energy to plot.addData arguments
	plot.addData(i=O.iter,unbalanced=unbalancedForce(),**O.energy)

# define how to plot data: 'i' (step number) on the x-axis, unbalanced force
# on the left y-axis, all energies on the right y-axis
# (O.energy.keys is function which will be called to get all defined energies)
# None separates left and right y-axis
plot.plots={'i':('unbalanced',None,O.energy.keys)}

# show the plot on the screen, and update while the simulation runs
plot.plot()

O.saveTmp()

Oedometric test

Following example is in file doc/sphinx/tutorial/03-oedometric-test.py.

# gravity deposition, continuing with oedometric test after stabilization
# shows also how to run parametric studies with yade-batch

# The components of the batch are:
# 1. table with parameters, one set of parameters per line (ccc.table)
# 2. readParamsFromTable which reads respective line from the parameter file
# 3. the simulation muse be run using yade-batch, not yade
#
# $ yade-batch --job-threads=1 03-oedometric-test.table 03-oedometric-test.py
#

# load parameters from file if run in batch
# default values are used if not run from batch
readParamsFromTable(rMean=.05,rRelFuzz=.3,maxLoad=1e6,minLoad=1e4)
# make rMean, rRelFuzz, maxLoad accessible directly as variables later
from yade.params.table import *

# create box with free top, and ceate loose packing inside the box
from yade import pack, plot
O.bodies.append(geom.facetBox((.5,.5,.5),(.5,.5,.5),wallMask=31))
sp=pack.SpherePack()
sp.makeCloud((0,0,0),(1,1,1),rMean=rMean,rRelFuzz=rRelFuzz)
sp.toSimulation()

O.engines=[
	ForceResetter(),
	# sphere, facet, wall
	InsertionSortCollider([Bo1_Sphere_Aabb(),Bo1_Facet_Aabb(),Bo1_Wall_Aabb()]),
	InteractionLoop(
		# the loading plate is a wall, we need to handle sphere+sphere, sphere+facet, sphere+wall
		[Ig2_Sphere_Sphere_ScGeom(),Ig2_Facet_Sphere_ScGeom(),Ig2_Wall_Sphere_ScGeom()],
		[Ip2_FrictMat_FrictMat_FrictPhys()],
		[Law2_ScGeom_FrictPhys_CundallStrack()]
	),
	NewtonIntegrator(gravity=(0,0,-9.81),damping=0.5),
	# the label creates an automatic variable referring to this engine
	# we use it below to change its attributes from the functions called
	PyRunner(command='checkUnbalanced()',realPeriod=2,label='checker'),
]
O.dt=.5*PWaveTimeStep()

# the following checkUnbalanced, unloadPlate and stopUnloading functions are all called by the 'checker'
# (the last engine) one after another; this sequence defines progression of different stages of the
# simulation, as each of the functions, when the condition is satisfied, updates 'checker' to call
# the next function when it is run from within the simulation next time

# check whether the gravity deposition has already finished
# if so, add wall on the top of the packing and start the oedometric test
def checkUnbalanced():
	# at the very start, unbalanced force can be low as there is only few contacts, but it does not mean the packing is stable
	if O.iter<5000: return 
	# the rest will be run only if unbalanced is < .1 (stabilized packing)
	if unbalancedForce()>.1: return 
	# add plate at the position on the top of the packing
	# the maximum finds the z-coordinate of the top of the topmost particle
	O.bodies.append(wall(max([b.state.pos[2]+b.shape.radius for b in O.bodies if isinstance(b.shape,Sphere)]),axis=2,sense=-1))
	global plate        # without this line, the plate variable would only exist inside this function
	plate=O.bodies[-1]  # the last particles is the plate
	# Wall objects are "fixed" by default, i.e. not subject to forces
	# prescribing a velocity will therefore make it move at constant velocity (downwards)
	plate.state.vel=(0,0,-.1)
	# start plotting the data now, it was not interesting before
	O.engines=O.engines+[PyRunner(command='addPlotData()',iterPeriod=200)]
	# next time, do not call this function anymore, but the next one (unloadPlate) instead
	checker.command='unloadPlate()'

def unloadPlate():
	# if the force on plate exceeds maximum load, start unloading
	if abs(O.forces.f(plate.id)[2])>maxLoad:
		plate.state.vel*=-1
		# next time, do not call this function anymore, but the next one (stopUnloading) instead
		checker.command='stopUnloading()'

def stopUnloading():
	if abs(O.forces.f(plate.id)[2])<minLoad:
		# O.tags can be used to retrieve unique identifiers of the simulation
		# if running in batch, subsequent simulation would overwrite each other's output files otherwise
		# d (or description) is simulation description (composed of parameter values)
		# while the id is composed of time and process number
		plot.saveDataTxt(O.tags['d.id']+'.txt')
		O.pause()
	
def addPlotData():
	if not isinstance(O.bodies[-1].shape,Wall):
		plot.addData(); return
	Fz=O.forces.f(plate.id)[2]
	plot.addData(Fz=Fz,w=plate.state.pos[2]-plate.state.refPos[2],unbalanced=unbalancedForce(),i=O.iter)

# besides unbalanced force evolution, also plot the displacement-force diagram
plot.plots={'i':('unbalanced',),'w':('Fz',)}
plot.plot()

O.run()
# when running with yade-batch, the script must not finish until the simulation is done fully
# this command will wait for that (has no influence in the non-batch mode)
waitIfBatch()


Batch table

To run the same script doc/sphinx/tutorial/03-oedometric-test.py in batch mode to test different parameters, execute command yade-batch 03-oedometric-test.table 03-oedometric-test.py, also visit page http://localhost:9080 to see the batch simulation progress.

rMean rRelFuzz maxLoad
.05 .1 1e6
.05 .2 1e6
.05 .3 1e6 

Periodic simple shear

Following example is in file doc/sphinx/tutorial/04-periodic-simple-shear.py.

# encoding: utf-8

# script for periodic simple shear test, with periodic boundary
# first compresses to attain some isotropic stress (checkStress),
# then loads in shear (checkDistorsion)
# 
# the initial packing is either regular (hexagonal), with empty bands along the boundary,
# or periodic random cloud of spheres
#
# material friction angle is initially set to zero, so that the resulting packing is dense
# (sphere rearrangement is easier if there is no friction)
#


# setup the periodic boundary
O.periodic=True
O.cell.refSize=(2,2,2)

from yade import pack,plot

# the "if 0:" block will be never executed, therefore the "else:" block will be
# to use cloud instead of regular packing, change to "if 1:" or something similar
if 0:
	# create cloud of spheres and insert them into the simulation
	# we give corners, mean radius, radius variation
	sp=pack.SpherePack()
	sp.makeCloud((0,0,0),(2,2,2),rMean=.1,rRelFuzz=.6,periodic=True)
	# insert the packing into the simulation
	sp.toSimulation(color=(0,0,1)) # pure blue
else:
	# in this case, add dense packing
	O.bodies.append(
		pack.regularHexa(pack.inAlignedBox((0,0,0),(2,2,2)),radius=.1,gap=0,color=(0,0,1))
	)

# create "dense" packing by setting friction to zero initially
O.materials[0].frictionAngle=0

# simulation loop (will be run at every step)
O.engines=[
	ForceResetter(),
	InsertionSortCollider([Bo1_Sphere_Aabb()]),
	InteractionLoop(
		[Ig2_Sphere_Sphere_ScGeom()],
		[Ip2_FrictMat_FrictMat_FrictPhys()],
		[Law2_ScGeom_FrictPhys_CundallStrack()]
	),
	NewtonIntegrator(damping=.4),
	# run checkStress function (defined below) every second
	# the label is arbitrary, and is used later to refer to this engine
	PyRunner(command='checkStress()',realPeriod=1,label='checker'),
	# record data for plotting every 100 steps; addData function is defined below
	PyRunner(command='addData()',iterPeriod=100)
]

# set the integration timestep to be 1/2 of the "critical" timestep
O.dt=.5*PWaveTimeStep()

# prescribe isotropic normal deformation (constant strain rate)
# of the periodic cell
O.cell.velGrad=Matrix3(-.1,0,0, 0,-.1,0, 0,0,-.1)

# when to stop the isotropic compression (used inside checkStress)
limitMeanStress=-5e5

# called every second by the PyRunner engine
def checkStress():
	# stress tensor as the sum of normal and shear contributions
	# Matrix3.Zero is the intial value for sum(...)
	stress=sum(normalShearStressTensors(),Matrix3.Zero)
	print 'mean stress',stress.trace()/3.
	# if mean stress is below (bigger in absolute value) limitMeanStress, start shearing
	if stress.trace()/3.<limitMeanStress:
		# apply constant-rate distorsion on the periodic cell
		O.cell.velGrad=Matrix3(0,0,.1, 0,0,0, 0,0,0)
		# change the function called by the checker engine
		# (checkStress will not be called anymore)
		checker.command='checkDistorsion()'
		# block rotations of particles to increase tanPhi, if desired
		# disabled by default
		if 0:
			for b in O.bodies:
				# block X,Y,Z rotations, translations are free
				b.state.blockedDOFs='XYZ'
				# stop rotations if any, as blockedDOFs block accelerations really
				b.state.angVel=(0,0,0)
		# set friction angle back to non-zero value
		# tangensOfFrictionAngle is computed by the Ip2_* functor from material
		# for future contacts change material (there is only one material for all particles)
		O.materials[0].frictionAngle=.5 # radians
		# for existing contacts, set contact friction directly
		for i in O.interactions: i.phys.tangensOfFrictionAngle=tan(.5)

# called from the 'checker' engine periodically, during the shear phase
def checkDistorsion():
	# if the distorsion value is >.3, exit; otherwise do nothing
	if abs(O.cell.trsf[0,2])>.5:
		# save data from addData(...) before exiting into file
		# use O.tags['id'] to distinguish individual runs of the same simulation
		plot.saveDataTxt(O.tags['id']+'.txt')
		# exit the program
		#import sys
		#sys.exit(0) # no error (0)
		O.pause()

# called periodically to store data history
def addData():
	# get the stress tensor (as 3x3 matrix)
	stress=sum(normalShearStressTensors(),Matrix3.Zero)
	# give names to values we are interested in and save them
	plot.addData(exz=O.cell.trsf[0,2],szz=stress[2,2],sxz=stress[0,2],tanPhi=stress[0,2]/stress[2,2],i=O.iter)
	# color particles based on rotation amount
	for b in O.bodies:
		# rot() gives rotation vector between reference and current position
		b.shape.color=scalarOnColorScale(b.state.rot().norm(),0,pi/2.)

# define what to plot (3 plots in total)
## exz(i), [left y axis, separate by None:] szz(i), sxz(i)
## szz(exz), sxz(exz)
## tanPhi(i)
# note the space in 'i ' so that it does not overwrite the 'i' entry
plot.plots={'i':('exz',None,'szz','sxz'),'exz':('szz','sxz'),'i ':('tanPhi',)}

# better show rotation of particles
Gl1_Sphere.stripes=True

# open the plot on the screen
plot.plot()

O.saveTmp()

3d postprocessing

Following example is in file doc/sphinx/tutorial/05-3d-postprocessing.py. This example will run for 20000 iterations, saving *.png snapshots, then it will make a video 3d.mpeg out of those snapshots.

# demonstrate 3d postprocessing with yade
#
# 1. qt.SnapshotEngine saves images of the 3d view as it appears on the screen periodically
#    makeVideo is then used to make real movie from those images
# 2. VTKRecorder saves data in files which can be opened with Paraview
#    see the User's manual for an intro to Paraview

# generate loose packing
from yade import pack, qt
sp=pack.SpherePack()
sp.makeCloud((0,0,0),(2,2,2),rMean=.1,rRelFuzz=.6,periodic=True)
# add to scene, make it periodic
sp.toSimulation()

O.engines=[
	ForceResetter(),
	InsertionSortCollider([Bo1_Sphere_Aabb()]),
	InteractionLoop(
		[Ig2_Sphere_Sphere_ScGeom()],
		[Ip2_FrictMat_FrictMat_FrictPhys()],
		[Law2_ScGeom_FrictPhys_CundallStrack()]
	),
	NewtonIntegrator(damping=.4),
	# save data for Paraview
	VTKRecorder(fileName='3d-vtk-',recorders=['all'],iterPeriod=1000),
	# save data from Yade's own 3d view
	qt.SnapshotEngine(fileBase='3d-',iterPeriod=200,label='snapshot'),
	# this engine will be called after 20000 steps, only once
	PyRunner(command='finish()',iterPeriod=20000)
]
O.dt=.5*PWaveTimeStep()

# prescribe constant-strain deformation of the cell
O.cell.velGrad=Matrix3(-.1,0,0, 0,-.1,0, 0,0,-.1)

# we must open the view explicitly (limitation of the qt.SnapshotEngine)
qt.View()

# this function is called when the simulation is finished
def finish():
	# snapshot is label of qt.SnapshotEngine
	# the 'snapshots' attribute contains list of all saved files
	makeVideo(snapshot.snapshots,'3d.mpeg',fps=10,bps=10000)
	O.pause()

# set parameters of the renderer, to show network chains rather than particles
# these settings are accessible from the Controller window, on the second tab ("Display") as well
rr=yade.qt.Renderer()
rr.shape=False
rr.intrPhys=True

Periodic triaxial test

Following example is in file doc/sphinx/tutorial/06-periodic-triaxial-test.py.

# encoding: utf-8

# periodic triaxial test simulation
#
# The initial packing is either
#
# 1. random cloud with uniform distribution, or
# 2. cloud with specified granulometry (radii and percentages), or
# 3. cloud of clumps, i.e. rigid aggregates of several particles
#
# The triaxial consists of 2 stages:
#
# 1. isotropic compaction, until sigmaIso is reached in all directions;
#    this stage is ended by calling compactionFinished() 
# 2. constant-strain deformation along the z-axis, while maintaining 
#    constant stress (sigmaIso) laterally; this stage is ended by calling
#    triaxFinished()
# 
# Controlling of strain and stresses is performed via PeriTriaxController,
# of which parameters determine type of control and also stability
# condition (maxUnbalanced) so that the packing is considered stabilized
# and the stage is done.
#

sigmaIso=-1e5

#import matplotlib
#matplotlib.use('Agg')

# generate loose packing
from yade import pack, qt, plot

O.periodic=True
sp=pack.SpherePack()
if 0:
	## uniform distribution
	sp.makeCloud((0,0,0),(2,2,2),rMean=.1,rRelFuzz=.3,periodic=True)
else:
	## create packing from clumps
	# configuration of one clump
	c1=pack.SpherePack([((0,0,0),.03333),((.03,0,0),.017),((0,.03,0),.017)])
	# make cloud using the configuration c1 (there could c2, c3, ...; selection between them would be random)
	sp.makeClumpCloud((0,0,0),(2,2,2),[c1],periodic=True,num=500)

# setup periodic boundary, insert the packing
sp.toSimulation()

O.engines=[
	ForceResetter(),
	InsertionSortCollider([Bo1_Sphere_Aabb()]),
	InteractionLoop(
		[Ig2_Sphere_Sphere_ScGeom()],
		[Ip2_FrictMat_FrictMat_FrictPhys()],
		[Law2_ScGeom_FrictPhys_CundallStrack()]
	),
	PeriTriaxController(label='triax',
		# specify target values and whether they are strains or stresses
		goal=(sigmaIso,sigmaIso,sigmaIso),stressMask=7,
		# type of servo-control
		dynCell=True,maxStrainRate=(10,10,10),
		# wait until the unbalanced force goes below this value
		maxUnbalanced=.1,relStressTol=1e-3,
		# call this function when goal is reached and the packing is stable
		doneHook='compactionFinished()'
	),
	NewtonIntegrator(damping=.2),
	PyRunner(command='addPlotData()',iterPeriod=100),
]
O.dt=.5*PWaveTimeStep()

def addPlotData():
	plot.addData(unbalanced=unbalancedForce(),i=O.iter,
		sxx=triax.stress[0],syy=triax.stress[1],szz=triax.stress[2],
		exx=triax.strain[0],eyy=triax.strain[1],ezz=triax.strain[2],
		# save all available energy data
		Etot=O.energy.total(),**O.energy
	)

# enable energy tracking in the code
O.trackEnergy=True

# define what to plot
plot.plots={'i':('unbalanced',),'i ':('sxx','syy','szz'),' i':('exx','eyy','ezz'),
	# energy plot
	' i ':(O.energy.keys,None,'Etot'),
}
# show the plot
plot.plot()

def compactionFinished():
	# set the current cell configuration to be the reference one
	O.cell.trsf=Matrix3.Identity
	# change control type: keep constant confinement in x,y, 20% compression in z
	triax.goal=(sigmaIso,sigmaIso,-.2)
	triax.stressMask=3
	# allow faster deformation along x,y to better maintain stresses
	triax.maxStrainRate=(1.,1.,.1)
	# next time, call triaxFinished instead of compactionFinished
	triax.doneHook='triaxFinished()'
	# do not wait for stabilization before calling triaxFinished
	triax.maxUnbalanced=10

def triaxFinished():
	print 'Finished'
	O.pause()